What happened to Jews in 1916 in Galicia (Eastern Europe) with Russian pogroms read below.?
I know my great great grandparents were shot together in 1916 in Galicia (Ternopil). My grandpa said it had something to do with Russians and pogroms. Can someone explain what happened there and what happened in detail to my great great grandparents. There names were Josef and Amalia Schmarak and they were Jewish. Married in 1879 born around 1855 I think.
- MercyLv 72 months ago
- ?Lv 62 months ago
I can tell you something about the place/ it's history a 1916 start for you to research for certain people/ details.
Ternopol (Ternopil) was a Polish city set up 1540 way out in the SE Poland border area on the plains of western Ukraine. It had a castle, was a strong point, became the big center of the area. It's population was by thirds...13 Polish, 1/3 Jewish, 1/3 Ukrainian. There was intermarriage especially between the Poles-Ukrainians.
After 1800 the area was under the Austrian-Hungary empire, their border area with Russia. It was the Austrians that called the Ternopol area their 'Galician province'. The city grew/ prospered the most under the Austrians in the 1800's. By 1905 Jews mage up 1/2 the population, Tarnopol was a trade center between Austria and Russia, and there was the great 'Tarnopol Synagogue' in Romanesque style.
The good times ended in WWI (1914-18), eastern Galicia and Ternopol were right on the battlefield of the Eastern Front between the Austrian-Hungarians and Russians fighting each other (since the area was the Austrian border area with Russia). During the War the city changed hands several times, but mostly 1914-17 it was occupied by the Russian enemy. They saw the Jews as supporters of more civilized Austria and hostile to Russians/ Ukrainians. The Russians would have done any 1916 pogroms against the Jews.
*It was policy for the Russian Czar to use pogroms against the Jews to stay in power. The targeted massacres, looting, rapes of Jews kept the Russian/Ukrainian peasants quiet, happy and distracted (since they got a share of the loot and the 'fun' of the massacres/ rapes).
*Ternopol area was part of the big historic WWI Russian 'Brusilov Offensive' of (May 1916), a really big military move known to be 'ruthless' your ancestors may have been shot then.
The Russians lost Ternopol for good (1917) and burned the city before retreating.
P.S. Most info is under....'Ternopol' the Polish and Austrian name. Ukraine where it now is changed it to 'Ternopil' recently.
Try to research the Brusilov Offensive WWI re: Ternopol do you have a date when they were shot 1916? Was it around May 1916?